Project Global: Ground

This exploration of our current day metropolitan condition as a system of systems deals with the crust of the Earth as a primary carrying capacitor of human activities, from the extraction of resources deep within the ground, to agricultural operations that barely scratch the surface.

Part 1: Lexicon

Part 2: Atlas

Part 3: Architectural Projects

Part 1: Lexicon index

︎ Formation

    ︎ Kaapvaal Craton
    ︎ Johannesburg Dome
    ︎ Vredefort Dome
    ︎ Topsoil
    ︎ Müggelsee

︎ Measurement    ︎ Schwerbelastungskörper
    ︎ Mining Earthquakes
    ︎ Low-tech Soil Testing
    ︎ Soil Texture Triangle
    ︎ Geologic Time Scale 
    ︎ Stratigraphic Colum
    ︎ Geographic Information System
    ︎ Ecotone
    ︎ Cultural Landscape

︎ Prototype
    ︎ Unter den Linden
    ︎ Zoological Landscape
    ︎ Counterculture
    ︎ Cultural Agency
    ︎ Mine-pit Lakes
    ︎ Parliament of Things

︎ Land distribution
    ︎ 1913 Natives Land Act
    ︎ District Six
    ︎ Eavesdropping
    ︎ Reconciliation Policy
    ︎ Land Grabbing
    ︎ Land Acting
    ︎ The Red Ants
    ︎ #PutSouthAfricansFirst
    ︎ Suburban Enclaves
    ︎ Parallel State

︎ Extraction
    ︎ Cullinan Diamond Mine
    ︎ Platinum Group Metals
    ︎ Zamazamas
    ︎ Gold Rush Inertia
    ︎ Sinkhole
    ︎ Maize Doctor
    ︎ Coal Hands

︎ Infrastructure
    ︎ Gautrain
    ︎ Le-guba
    ︎ Lesotho Water Project
    ︎ Deutscher Wald
    ︎ Arrival City

︎ Production
    ︎ Safari Economy
    ︎ Agritourism
    ︎ Rainfall Line
    ︎ Upington Airport
    ︎ Tiergarten Transformation
    ︎ Pivot Irrigation
    ︎ Allotment Garden
    ︎ Bokoni Terracing
    ︎ Johannesburg Forestation
    ︎ Game Farming Cycle

︎ Waste
    ︎ Trümmerberg
    ︎ Fab-Soil
    ︎ Mining Waste Belt
    ︎ Sanitary Landfilling
    ︎ Soil Structure
    ︎ Biogas Technology

︎ Pollution
    ︎ Dry Stacked Tailings
    ︎ Water Pollution
    ︎ Soil Pollution
    ︎ Uranium Sandstorms
    ︎ Poaching

︎ Remediation
    ︎ European Green Belt
    ︎ Conservation Agriculture
    ︎ Airfield Urbanism
    ︎ Solar Park
    ︎ Gold Reef City
    ︎ Mine Pit Lake
    ︎ Loess Plateau
    ︎ Erosion Control

Safari Economy

“ ⁠— ”

The ‘Big Five’ is one of the most commonly used marketing slogans in the safari industry referring to the five greatest wild animals in Africa: the lion, leopard, elephant, buffalo, and rhino. Initially, the term big five was only used by professional big-game hunters, but became popularized in the nineteenth to early twentieth centuries as a result of wealthy amateurs - from European royalty to American presidents - who wanted to bag an African hunting trophy: the more giant and more unpredictable the beast, the better.1
        A 2017 National land audit from the government2 reports that amongst South Africa's nine provinces, Gauteng ranks last in leisure tourism but is by far the primary destination for business travelers. Legalized hunting has made South Africa the biggest game hunting destination globally.3 Due to its location within the country and close proximity to nearby safari parks, Johannesburg has become a central transport destination through OR Tambo International Airport, the principal point from which to visit the big five and wildlife near Kruger National Park, the biggest national park in South Africa.
        The safari industry plays an essential role in South Africa’s economy - the big five contributes to around 80% of the total economic value associated with tourism of South Africa’s ecology.4 However, changes in tourism policies and travel conditions have made safaris more affordable for middle-class tourists from Western countries, resulting in an increase of tourists visiting the region that endangers both habitat and wildlife.5 Today, lion populations are dwindling and leopards have been declared endangered.6

Image source : Hand drawing of the big five by David Cubbins, local South African artist.

1.   “GoEco.” From Targets to Tourist Attractions: Understanding and Protecting the Big Five in South Africa. Accessed March 6, 2021
2.   Department Rural development and land reform. Republic of South Africa. “Land audit report, version 2. Phase ll : Private land ownership by race, gender and nationality.” November 2017.
3.   Christian M. Rogerson and Lucy Kaplan. “Tourism Promotion in 'Difficult Areas': The Experience of Johannesburg Inner-city.” Urban Forum, Vol. 16, Nos. 2-3, April-September 2005. 214-2434
4.   Rogerson Christian M. and Kaplan Lucy. “Tourism Promotion in 'Difficult Areas': The Experience of Johannesburg Inner-city.” Urban Forum, Vol. 16, Nos. 2-3, April-September 2005. 214-243
5.   Cejas Mónica. “Tourism “Back in Time”: Performing “the Essence of Safari” in Africa.” Intercultural Communication Studies XVI: 3 2007.
6.   “luhluwegamereserve” Africa Big 5. Accessed March 3, 2022