Project Global: Ground


This exploration of our current day metropolitan condition as a system of systems deals with the crust of the Earth as a primary carrying capacitor of human activities, from the extraction of resources deep within the ground, to agricultural operations that barely scratch the surface.

Part 1: Lexicon

Part 2: Atlas



Part 1: Lexicon index

︎ Formation

    ︎ Kaapvaal Craton
    ︎ Johannesburg Dome
    ︎ Vredefort Dome
    ︎ Topsoil
    ︎ Müggelsee


︎ Measurement    ︎ Schwerbelastungskörper
    ︎ Mining Earthquakes
    ︎ Low-tech Soil Testing
    ︎ Soil Texture Triangle
    ︎ Geologic Time Scale 
    ︎ Stratigraphic Colum
    ︎ Geographic Information System
    ︎ Ecotone
    ︎ Cultural Landscape

︎ Prototype
    ︎ Unter den Linden
    ︎ Zoological Landscape
    ︎ Counterculture
    ︎ Cultural Agency
    ︎ Mine-pit Lakes
    ︎ Parliament of Things

︎ Land distribution
    ︎ 1913 Natives Land Act
    ︎ District Six
    ︎ Eavesdropping
    ︎ Reconciliation Policy
    ︎ Land Grabbing
    ︎ Land Acting
    ︎ The Red Ants
    ︎ #PutSouthAfricansFirst
    ︎ Suburban Enclaves
    ︎ Parallel State

︎ Extraction
    ︎ Cullinan Diamond Mine
    ︎ Platinum Group Metals
    ︎ Zamazamas
    ︎ Gold Rush Inertia
    ︎ Sinkhole
    ︎ Maize Doctor
    ︎ Coal Hands

︎ Infrastructure
    ︎ Gautrain
    ︎ Le-guba
    ︎ Lesotho Water Project
    ︎ Deutscher Wald
    ︎ Arrival City

︎ Production
    ︎ Safari Economy
    ︎ Agritourism
    ︎ Rainfall Line
    ︎ Upington Airport
    ︎ Tiergarten Transformation
    ︎ Pivot Irrigation
    ︎ Allotment Garden
    ︎ Bokoni Terracing
    ︎ Johannesburg Forestation
    ︎ Game Farming Cycle

︎ Waste
    ︎ Trümmerberg
    ︎ Fab-Soil
    ︎ Mining Waste Belt
    ︎ Sanitary Landfilling
    ︎ Soil Structure
    ︎ Biogas Technology

︎ Pollution
    ︎ Dry Stacked Tailings
    ︎ Water Pollution
    ︎ Soil Pollution
    ︎ Uranium Sandstorms
    ︎ Poaching

︎ Remediation
    ︎ European Green Belt
    ︎ Conservation Agriculture
    ︎ Airfield Urbanism
    ︎ Solar Park
    ︎ Gold Reef City
    ︎ Mine Pit Lake
    ︎ Loess Plateau
    ︎ Erosion Control




Geologic Time Scale

“How can we talk about the age of the Earth?”


The Geologic Time Scale is a system of chronological dating that classifies geological strata through timescales1 and periods, developed by geologists to catalog major geologic events by studying various rock sections, fossilized samples, and prevalence of organisms in the earth's crust to establish distinct relationships between geologic events. Similar to the calendar that measures human time in calendar years, months, weeks and days, geologic time is broken down into distinguishable subdivisions of periods, eras and eons,2 that are designated through a subjective reading of the rock, as established through the global standards set by the international non-governmental body, The International Commission on Stratigraphy.3
        The study of geologic time assists the exploration of natural resources, including mineral ores, oil, gas, and water, and is foundational towards understanding and predicting earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and other natural disasters. Geologic time is divided into four principal divisions:
Precambrian
;
Palezoic
, in which evolution of water and life is evident; Mesozoic, the age of the reptiles; and Cenozoic, which is our  current geological era.4


Image source: An illustration of a geologic time spiral Photograph: Joseph Graham, William Newman, John Stacy/United States Geological Survey


References
1.  “Geologic Time Scale.” In Wikipedia, March 3, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geologic_time_scale&oldid=1075003632.
2.  “Geologic Time Scale - Geology (U.S. National Park Service).” Accessed March 7, 2022. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/time-scale.htm.
3.   “International Commission on Stratigraphy.” Accessed March 7, 2022. https://stratigraphy.org/.
4.   “Geologic Time Scale - Geology (U.S. National Park Service).” Accessed March 7, 2022. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/time-scale.htm.