Project Global: Ground


This exploration of our current day metropolitan condition as a system of systems deals with the crust of the Earth as a primary carrying capacitor of human activities, from the extraction of resources deep within the ground, to agricultural operations that barely scratch the surface.

Part 1: Lexicon

Part 2: Atlas



Part 1: Lexicon index

︎ Formation

    ︎ Kaapvaal Craton
    ︎ Johannesburg Dome
    ︎ Vredefort Dome
    ︎ Topsoil
    ︎ Müggelsee


︎ Measurement    ︎ Schwerbelastungskörper
    ︎ Mining Earthquakes
    ︎ Low-tech Soil Testing
    ︎ Soil Texture Triangle
    ︎ Geologic Time Scale 
    ︎ Stratigraphic Colum
    ︎ Geographic Information System
    ︎ Ecotone
    ︎ Cultural Landscape

︎ Prototype
    ︎ Unter den Linden
    ︎ Zoological Landscape
    ︎ Counterculture
    ︎ Cultural Agency
    ︎ Mine-pit Lakes
    ︎ Parliament of Things

︎ Land distribution
    ︎ 1913 Natives Land Act
    ︎ District Six
    ︎ Eavesdropping
    ︎ Reconciliation Policy
    ︎ Land Grabbing
    ︎ Land Acting
    ︎ The Red Ants
    ︎ #PutSouthAfricansFirst
    ︎ Suburban Enclaves
    ︎ Parallel State

︎ Extraction
    ︎ Cullinan Diamond Mine
    ︎ Platinum Group Metals
    ︎ Zamazamas
    ︎ Gold Rush Inertia
    ︎ Sinkhole
    ︎ Maize Doctor
    ︎ Coal Hands

︎ Infrastructure
    ︎ Gautrain
    ︎ Le-guba
    ︎ Lesotho Water Project
    ︎ Deutscher Wald
    ︎ Arrival City

︎ Production
    ︎ Safari Economy
    ︎ Agritourism
    ︎ Rainfall Line
    ︎ Upington Airport
    ︎ Tiergarten Transformation
    ︎ Pivot Irrigation
    ︎ Allotment Garden
    ︎ Bokoni Terracing
    ︎ Johannesburg Forestation
    ︎ Game Farming Cycle

︎ Waste
    ︎ Trümmerberg
    ︎ Fab-Soil
    ︎ Mining Waste Belt
    ︎ Sanitary Landfilling
    ︎ Soil Structure
    ︎ Biogas Technology

︎ Pollution
    ︎ Dry Stacked Tailings
    ︎ Water Pollution
    ︎ Soil Pollution
    ︎ Uranium Sandstorms
    ︎ Poaching

︎ Remediation
    ︎ European Green Belt
    ︎ Conservation Agriculture
    ︎ Airfield Urbanism
    ︎ Solar Park
    ︎ Gold Reef City
    ︎ Mine Pit Lake
    ︎ Loess Plateau
    ︎ Erosion Control




Bokoni Terracing

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The stonewalled and terraced settlement in Bokoni between the towns of Ohrigstad and Coralina in Mpumalanga Province is believed to be dated around the sixteenth century. The geographic location, in its political and economic context, suggests that the Bokoni community acted as intermediaries for international trade between the east coast around Maputo, supplied cattle and agricultural surplus from inland regions to the coast, and also facilitated regional trade with inland agriculturally less-productive areas. Thus, the Bokoni community had a need to develop methods to produce agricultural surplus for international and regional trade by introducing new crops - principally  maize - to the area.
        The extensive agricultural terracing, as well as the walled cattle roads, suggest that there was a close integration between animal husbandry and crop cultivation in Bokoni. The terraces show a wide variation from well-built vertical walls to low irregular lines of stone and earth. The stone boundary served several purposes, including clearing stones from the farm land to facilitate cultivation, retaining soil at the site of the alignments, and impeding and spreading water runoff. The research on the profile of soil in Verlorenkloof suggested that the terrace was not formed as a singular effort before mass cultivation but rather as an incremental process of clearing the land, building walls, turning back soil, and smoothing back soil.



Image source:  Widgren, Mats, Tim Maggs, Anna Plikk, Jan Risberg, Maria H. Schoeman, and Lars-Ove Westerberg. “Precolonial Agricultural Terracing in Bokoni, South Africa: Typology and an Exploratory Excavation.” Journal of African Archaeology 14, no. 1 (November 1, 2016): 9, 16. https://doi.org/10.3213/2191-5784-10281.


References
1.    Widgren, Mats, Tim Maggs, Anna Plikk, Jan Risberg, Maria H. Schoeman, and Lars-Ove Westerberg. “Precolonial Agricultural Terracing in Bokoni, South Africa: Typology and an Exploratory Excavation.” Journal of African Archaeology 14, no. 1 (2016): 33–53.
2.   Delius, Peter. “South Africa Risks Losing Rich Insights into an Ancient Farming Society.” The Conversation. Accessed March 6, 2022. http://theconversation.com/south-africa-risks-losing-rich-insights-into-an-ancient-farming-society-129914