Project Global: Ground


This exploration of our current day metropolitan condition as a system of systems deals with the crust of the Earth as a primary carrying capacitor of human activities, from the extraction of resources deep within the ground, to agricultural operations that barely scratch the surface.

Part 1: Lexicon

Part 2: Atlas



Part 1: Lexicon index

︎ Formation

    ︎ Kaapvaal Craton
    ︎ Johannesburg Dome
    ︎ Vredefort Dome
    ︎ Topsoil
    ︎ Müggelsee


︎ Measurement    ︎ Schwerbelastungskörper
    ︎ Mining Earthquakes
    ︎ Low-tech Soil Testing
    ︎ Soil Texture Triangle
    ︎ Geologic Time Scale 
    ︎ Stratigraphic Colum
    ︎ Geographic Information System
    ︎ Ecotone
    ︎ Cultural Landscape

︎ Prototype
    ︎ Unter den Linden
    ︎ Zoological Landscape
    ︎ Counterculture
    ︎ Cultural Agency
    ︎ Mine-pit Lakes
    ︎ Parliament of Things

︎ Land distribution
    ︎ 1913 Natives Land Act
    ︎ District Six
    ︎ Eavesdropping
    ︎ Reconciliation Policy
    ︎ Land Grabbing
    ︎ Land Acting
    ︎ The Red Ants
    ︎ #PutSouthAfricansFirst
    ︎ Suburban Enclaves
    ︎ Parallel State

︎ Extraction
    ︎ Cullinan Diamond Mine
    ︎ Platinum Group Metals
    ︎ Zamazamas
    ︎ Gold Rush Inertia
    ︎ Sinkhole
    ︎ Maize Doctor
    ︎ Coal Hands

︎ Infrastructure
    ︎ Gautrain
    ︎ Le-guba
    ︎ Lesotho Water Project
    ︎ Deutscher Wald
    ︎ Arrival City

︎ Production
    ︎ Safari Economy
    ︎ Agritourism
    ︎ Rainfall Line
    ︎ Upington Airport
    ︎ Tiergarten Transformation
    ︎ Pivot Irrigation
    ︎ Allotment Garden
    ︎ Bokoni Terracing
    ︎ Johannesburg Forestation
    ︎ Game Farming Cycle

︎ Waste
    ︎ Trümmerberg
    ︎ Fab-Soil
    ︎ Mining Waste Belt
    ︎ Sanitary Landfilling
    ︎ Soil Structure
    ︎ Biogas Technology

︎ Pollution
    ︎ Dry Stacked Tailings
    ︎ Water Pollution
    ︎ Soil Pollution
    ︎ Uranium Sandstorms
    ︎ Poaching

︎ Remediation
    ︎ European Green Belt
    ︎ Conservation Agriculture
    ︎ Airfield Urbanism
    ︎ Solar Park
    ︎ Gold Reef City
    ︎ Mine Pit Lake
    ︎ Loess Plateau
    ︎ Erosion Control




Kaapvaal Craton

“ A key geomorphological component of the Johannesburg region. The heart of the Earth makes itself known.”


A craton is the geologically stable interior portion of a continent. The Kaapvaal Craton is one of the oldest geological formations on Earth, dating back over three billion years to the Archaean Eon, and acts as the
geomorphological
origin of several present-day geological formations in the region surrounding Johannesburg.
        It was part of the Vaalbará, the first supercontinent that existed on the planet. Although the craton contains some of the world's oldest rocks, eighty-six percent of the craton is covered by younger rocks. Local cooling of the underlying asthenosphere, or upper layer of the Earth’s mantle, resulted in the subsidence, or downward vertical movement, of a portion of this microcontinent below sea level, creating the ancient Witwatersrand Sea. Rivers brought sandy
sediments
from the north of the craton, which eventually became compressed to form Orange Grove quartzite rock, still visible in the region surrounding the South African city of Johannesburg today. This
quartzite
layer lies on its granite base in Johannesburg, forming a fifty-six-kilometer-long east-west ridge, over which several rivers form waterfalls, giving rise to the name Witwatersrand, which in Afrikaans means “ridge of white waters”.1



Image source: Jaclyn S. Baughman, Rebecca M. Flowers. Mesoproterozoic burial of the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa during Rodinia supercontinent assembly from (U-Th)/He thermochronology, Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2020. Modified by NA.


References
1.  Lemmons, Richard. 2022. “Kaapvaal Craton South Africa - Plate Tectonics.” Climate Policy Watcher. January 7, 2022. https://www.climate-policy-watcher.org/plate-tectonics/kaapvaal-craton-south-africa.html.