Project Global: Ground

This exploration of our current day metropolitan condition as a system of systems deals with the crust of the Earth as a primary carrying capacitor of human activities, from the extraction of resources deep within the ground, to agricultural operations that barely scratch the surface.

Part 1: Lexicon

Part 2: Atlas

Part 3: Architectural Projects

Part 1: Lexicon index

︎ Formation

    ︎ Kaapvaal Craton
    ︎ Johannesburg Dome
    ︎ Vredefort Dome
    ︎ Topsoil
    ︎ Müggelsee

︎ Measurement    ︎ Schwerbelastungskörper
    ︎ Mining Earthquakes
    ︎ Low-tech Soil Testing
    ︎ Soil Texture Triangle
    ︎ Geologic Time Scale 
    ︎ Stratigraphic Colum
    ︎ Geographic Information System
    ︎ Ecotone
    ︎ Cultural Landscape

︎ Prototype
    ︎ Unter den Linden
    ︎ Zoological Landscape
    ︎ Counterculture
    ︎ Cultural Agency
    ︎ Mine-pit Lakes
    ︎ Parliament of Things

︎ Land distribution
    ︎ 1913 Natives Land Act
    ︎ District Six
    ︎ Eavesdropping
    ︎ Reconciliation Policy
    ︎ Land Grabbing
    ︎ Land Acting
    ︎ The Red Ants
    ︎ #PutSouthAfricansFirst
    ︎ Suburban Enclaves
    ︎ Parallel State

︎ Extraction
    ︎ Cullinan Diamond Mine
    ︎ Platinum Group Metals
    ︎ Zamazamas
    ︎ Gold Rush Inertia
    ︎ Sinkhole
    ︎ Maize Doctor
    ︎ Coal Hands

︎ Infrastructure
    ︎ Gautrain
    ︎ Le-guba
    ︎ Lesotho Water Project
    ︎ Deutscher Wald
    ︎ Arrival City

︎ Production
    ︎ Safari Economy
    ︎ Agritourism
    ︎ Rainfall Line
    ︎ Upington Airport
    ︎ Tiergarten Transformation
    ︎ Pivot Irrigation
    ︎ Allotment Garden
    ︎ Bokoni Terracing
    ︎ Johannesburg Forestation
    ︎ Game Farming Cycle

︎ Waste
    ︎ Trümmerberg
    ︎ Fab-Soil
    ︎ Mining Waste Belt
    ︎ Sanitary Landfilling
    ︎ Soil Structure
    ︎ Biogas Technology

︎ Pollution
    ︎ Dry Stacked Tailings
    ︎ Water Pollution
    ︎ Soil Pollution
    ︎ Uranium Sandstorms
    ︎ Poaching

︎ Remediation
    ︎ European Green Belt
    ︎ Conservation Agriculture
    ︎ Airfield Urbanism
    ︎ Solar Park
    ︎ Gold Reef City
    ︎ Mine Pit Lake
    ︎ Loess Plateau
    ︎ Erosion Control

Biogas Technology

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Livestock farming is South Africa's largest agricultural sector, accounting for over 40% of agricultural output's total value and occupying roughly 80% of available agricultural land.1 Therefore, it is endowed with plenty of biomass reserves and can be a candidate solution to animal waste, which is still a growing problem.
Biogas is a gas that is produced when any organic matter decomposes under anaerobic conditions. The methane from biogas (bio-methane) is a source of renewable energy producing electricity, and can be a solution to South Africa’s current energy problems2, due to its strong reliance on coal and fossil fuel energy. As opposed to wind and solar energies, biogas can be stored and used based on timely needs, making it the efficient choice especially in South-Africa.
        An interesting example is the Bio2Watt Bronkhorstspruit plant, which is the first industrial scale biogas waste-to-energy operation in South Africa, starting 2015. BMW factory in Rosslyn plant, Pretoria, opened in 20183 and uses 30% electricity from Bio2Watt renewable energy.
        In 2016 there were 200 digesters all through SA, in which 90% of them are small scale users. SA is lagging behind, mainly due to high initial investment costs, inconsistency of substrate to feed into digesters and lack of funding for education and dissemination programs, to name a few.

Image source: Schematic diagram of biogas plant

2.   Mukumba, Patrick & Makaka, Golden & Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni. “Biogas Technology in South Africa, Problems, Challenges and Solutions”. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research. 2016
3.   Rangongo, Timothy. “This is what it looks like inside the massive Pretoria BMW factory, which produces 15 luxury SUVs per hour”. Business Insider SA. September 10th, 2018.