The Existing Condition

Groundwater-Surface Water- Interactions

The analysis of the seasonal variations of groundwater and river water levels represents the conceptual model of the sand river aquifer system and the respective hydrological processes in dry season and flooding season. groundwater discharges into the river throughout most of the dry season. revealing the high permeability of the aquifer, groundwater levels are higher than the river level throughout the dry season. This means that harmful substances in groundwater are very easy to contaminate river water during dry periods. Water level rise during the flood season is extremely fast but temporary.Recharge occurs through quick infiltration from flood waters into very permeable sands, which are directly linked to the natural discharge of the sand river aquifer system to sustain the groundwater-surface water interaction after the rain season. However, after a long-term drought, the weathered sediment is easily washed away by the speed of the water flow, causing the flow and precipitation in the dry season, resulting in the depth of the river gradually becoming shallower in the next drought period,


Sanne van den Breemer
Filip Geerts
Ilmar Hurkxkens

Director of Studies

Salomon Frausto


Nigel Alarcon(MX), Pooja Bhave(IN), Mariano Cuofano(IT), Fabiola Cruz(PE), Alonso Díaz(MX), Xiaoyu Ding(CN), Ines Garcia‑Lezana(ES), Sandra Garcia(ES), Martino Greco(IT), Sebastian Hitchcock(ZA), Alejandra Huesca(MX), Yesah Hwangbo(KR), Takuma Johnson(US), Yi-Ni Lin(TW), Paola Tovar(MX), Cristhy Mattos(BR), Preradon Pimpakan(TH), Adi Samet(IL), Raymond Tang(US), Kulaporn Temudom(TH), Danai Tsigkanou(GR), Jesse Verdoes(NL), Rongting Xiao(CN)