Lavoisier’s Law

The Witwatersrand’s gold tailings are currently being re-mined to retrieve gold that previous technologies could not extract. Gold reclamation from tailings poses an opportunity to use Mine Waste as raw material in other fields such as construction. Due to the element composition of tailings, this can be used as aggregates and cement substitutes for concrete. This contribution takes advantage of the mining reclamation processes happening along the west rand to produce bricks and concrete for 3D printed houses that will then be fitted back into the immediate urban fabric surrounding the tailing in an interdependent operation of input-output.


Sanne van den Breemer
Filip Geerts
Ilmar Hurkxkens

Director of Studies

Salomon Frausto


Nigel Alarcon(MX), Pooja Bhave(IN), Mariano Cuofano(IT), Fabiola Cruz(PE), Alonso Díaz(MX), Xiaoyu Ding(CN), Ines Garcia‑Lezana(ES), Sandra Garcia(ES), Martino Greco(IT), Sebastian Hitchcock(ZA), Alejandra Huesca(MX), Yesah Hwangbo(KR), Takuma Johnson(US), Yi-Ni Lin(TW), Paola Tovar(MX), Cristhy Mattos(BR), Preradon Pimpakan(TH), Adi Samet(IL), Raymond Tang(US), Kulaporn Temudom(TH), Danai Tsigkanou(GR), Jesse Verdoes(NL), Rongting Xiao(CN)