Seeking to explore power as crucial factor in the design of the built environment, we will look at energy systems and related objects, from sites of generation to spaces of consumption, from distribution networks to control rooms.

Tutors: Filip Geerts and Sanne van den Breemer
Director of Studies: Salomon Frausto

Contributors: Santiago Ardila, Juan Benavides, Daniella Camarena, Stef Dingen, Marco Fusco, Jack Garay Arauzo, Theodora Gelali, Shaiwanti Gupta, Hao Hsu, Marianthi Papangelopoulou, Felipe Quintero, Gent Shehu, Siyuan Wang

Sand Mafia

Failure of a systemHousingNational, Real Estate, Housing, Economy, Commercial, Drawing

Yakuza in Japan is a crime business fully organised in its rankings, forming different syndicates not only to cover better the territories, but also to cover all kinds of different sectors in business, industry, politics, commerce and so on. Kodo-kai is one of yakuza’s branches described as a “financial mafia”, due to their focus on banking investment and real estate business. However, according to media sources the organisation gains the majority of its earnings by another kind of activity. Reportedly, Kodo-kai was the sole supplier of rock, sand and gravel for the  Chūbu Centrair International Airport construction. The airport is located in the Aichi prefecture on an artificial offshore island. The whole project was based on land-reclamation and therefore a variety of materials had to be used. The concrete revetments on the seabed was the base on which tons of rock, sandstone and landfill was used to form the body of the island. Using as front a company called Samix, kodo-kai was the sole supplier of this operation. The organisation allegedly also maintains contact with the Nagoya police, a fact that gives this “Sand Mafia” a head start when being confronted with accusations or police investigation.